Native Kerberos Security Setup

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This documentation describes how to set up an Alluxio cluster with MIT native Kerberos, running on an AWS EC2 Linux cluster as an example. This doc uses the example of hostname-associated principal setup. If you would like to use unified principal across all the Alluxio service nodes, please set alluxio.security.kerberos.unified.instance.name and make sure the principal instance name matches this configuration property.

The default Java GSS implementation relies on JAAS KerberosLoginModule for initial credential acquisition. In contrast, when native platform Kerberos integration is enabled, the initial credential acquisition should happen prior to calling JGSS APIs, e.g. through kinit. When enabled, Java GSS would look for native GSS library using the operating system specific name, e.g. Solaris: libgss.so vs Linux: libgssapi.so. If the desired GSS library has a different name or is not located under a directory for system libraries, then its full path should be specified using the system property sun.security.jgss.lib.

Prerequisites

  • There is an existing MIT KDC (Key Distribution Center).
  • Krb5 client library is installed on the machines running Alluxio servers and clients.
  • ALLUXIO.COM is the example realm name in this doc.
  • alluxio is the example Alluxio service name in this doc.
  • Each Alluxio service node (Masters and Workers) uses service principal named alluxio/<HOSTNAME>@ALLUXIO.COM.
  • In all Alluxio service nodes, Kerberos credentials for alluxio/<HOSTNAME>@ALLUXIO.COM already exist (e.g. through kinit).
  • The service name alluxio is a valid user in Linux operating system.
  • <HOSTNAME> can be set to user-qualified hostname, such as user.full.machine.host.name

Alluxio Configuration

When installing Alluxio, you can enable Kerberos security for Alluxio by setting up configuration properties in alluxio-site.properties.

alluxio.security.authentication.type=KERBEROS
alluxio.master.hostname=<MASTER_HOSTNAME>

You also need to set the worker’s hostname on the worker nodes. Please make sure the WORKER_HOSTNAME set in Alluxio site properties matches with the <HOSTNAME> part of the service principal. Otherwise, Kerberos authentication will fail. You can set the worker hostname in alluxio-site.properties.

alluxio.worker.hostname=<WORKER_HOSTNAME>

In Alluxio versions before 2.1.0, you also need to set alluxio.security.kerberos.service.name and this is a required parameter.

alluxio.security.kerberos.service.name=alluxio

Note:

  • There is an optional property called alluxio.security.kerberos.unified.instance.name. If specified, all the Alluxio servers will share the same principal. For example, if the unified instance name is set to alluxio.security.kerberos.unified.instance.name=cluster, then the master and worker principals will be the same, and will be alluxio/cluster@ALLUXIO.COM.
  • For Alluxio versions before 2.1.0, alluxio.security.kerberos.service.name is a required parameter. This parameter is used to specify the Alluxio Service Principal service name. It is assumed that there is a present Kerberos ticket with the principal <primary>/<instance>@REALM.COM whose <primary> part matches with alluxio.security.kerberos.service.name. If you have set parameter alluxio.security.kerberos.server.principal, the <primary> part must match with alluxio.security.kerberos.service.name.
  • In version 2.1.0, parameter alluxio.security.kerberos.service.name has been removed from the configuration. alluxio.security.kerberos.service.name is not necessary anymore because it can be extracted from alluxio.security.kerberos.server.principal.
  • In JGSS native environment, alluxio.security.kerberos.server.principal is an optional parameter. If alluxio.security.kerberos.server.principal is not set, it will be inferred from the Kerberos ticket cache when Alluxio starts. The server principal is then propagated to clients via cluster defaults. If the cluster defaults is disabled by alluxio.user.conf.cluster.default.enabled=false, the clients must be configured with alluxio.security.kerberos.server.principal because the cluster defaults are not propagated to the clients.

JGSS native Kerberos integration requires an environment variable (i.e. KRB5_KTNAME) to find the keytab file for Alluxio processes. If this environment variable is not set globally, you can add the following line to ${ALLUXIO_HOME}/conf/alluxio-env.sh so that KRB5_KTNAME refers to the keytab file for alluxio/localhost@ALLUXIO.COM.

# Replace </path/to/keytab> with the path to the keytab of Alluxio service principal, e.g. alluxio/localhost@ALLUXIO.COM
export KRB5_KTNAME=</path/to/keytab>

Furthermore, to use JGSS native Kerberos integration, the following Java system properties must be set. If they are not already set system-wide, you can add them to ALLUXIO_JAVA_OPTS in {ALLUXIO_HOME}/conf/alluxio-env.sh:

ALLUXIO_JAVA_OPTS+=" -Dsun.security.jgss.native=true -Djavax.security.auth.useSubjectCredsOnly=false "

To access a Kerberized Alluxio cluster, Alluxio clients require the same configuration.

Using the JGSS native Kerberos implementation requires populating the Kerberos ticket cache before starting Alluxio processes. Therefore, before you start any Alluxio server process (master or worker), you must kinit with the appropriate service principal, and with the OS user starting the Alluxio process. For example, if the Alluxio master will be started by OS user alluxioadmin, the alluxioadmin can start Alluxio by:

$ kinit -kt </path/to/keytab> alluxio/localhost@ALLUXIO.COM
$ ./bin/alluxio-start.sh master

Similarly, the worker can be started by:

$ kinit -kt </path/to/keytab> alluxio/localhost@ALLUXIO.COM
$ ./bin/alluxio-start.sh worker SudoMount

Kerberos-enabled Alluxio Integration with Secure-HDFS as UFS

Please visit Secure HDFS UFS guide.

Running Spark with Alluxio Kerberized with native integration

Follow the Running-Spark-on-Alluxio guide to set up SPARK_CLASSPATH. In addition, the following items should be added to make Spark aware of Kerberos configurations:

  • Copy Alluxio site configuration {ALLUXIO_HOME}/conf/alluxio-site.properties to {SPARK_HOME}/conf for Spark to pick up Alluxio configurations such as Kerberos related flags.

  • When launching Spark shell or jobs, please add -Dsun.security.jgss.native=true -Djavax.security.auth.useSubjectCredsOnly=false in spark.executor.extraJavaOptions and spark.driver.extraJavaOptions

FAQ

Please visit the general Kerberos FAQ for additional questions.

When using the native libraries, you can set an environment variable KRB5_TRACE=/tmp/path/to/log. Additionally, set the Kerberos debug level with:

-Dsun.security.krb5.debug=true

Cannot add private credential to subject with JGSS

This is typically because the required pre-existing Kerberos credential is not valid. Please run klist to double check.

Unable to Obtain Password from User

You will see this only if the JGSS system property is not setup correctly. Alluxio falls back to the JAAS Kerberos login with ticket cache and keytab file if sun.security.jgss.native is not enabled.